When you are buying an acoustic guitar, one of the most important things to consider is the type of wood that is used in the construction of the guitar. The reason for this being is that the wood of an acoustic guitar is one of the main factors that affects tone. Having a better understanding of the wood of different acoustic guitars will greatly increase your knowledge of why certain guitars sound differently, which guitars are right for you and what guitars to purchase.
Spruce is one of the most popular types of wood that steel-string acoustic guitars are made of. One reason for this is that spruce is a good choice for all types of playing styles. In addition, spruce almost always delivers a dynamic sound that does a great job of cutting through any mix. This means that it is a great option for playing live and recording. Also, spruce is great for producing the high frequencies that emit from your acoustic guitar.
Like spruce, cedar is another type of wood that is popular in acoustic guitars. However, one of the main differences between the two is that cedar tends to produce a much darker tone than that of spruce. While this may be a great choice for many players, one of the downsides is that cedar guitars usually lack in volume and projection. This type of wood is a go-to for players who usually prefer fingerpicking.
Lastly, mahogany is a type of wood that is used in acoustic guitars, but it is not as popular as guitars built with spruce or cedar. There is nothing significantly good or bad about mahogany, as it is generally a decent choice. It produces a balanced tone with a really distinct mid-range. One thing to note about mahogany guitars is that the tops are usually left unpolished. While these are three of the most popular types of wood for acoustic guitars, your knowledge will grow as you continue to play and examine more and more acoustic guitars.